Category: Waveguide speaker

Working backwards, that 6. The speaker outside physical diameter is This comfortably sets the minimum Front width of the speaker to mm. Early Fourties, Wife, two kids in primary school. Both of us work full time It's a new country for everyone! Still finding time to tinker! View all posts by bleughbleugh. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account.

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Notify me of new posts via email. Skip to content 20 cm x 20 cm x Working with the above gives us the following minimal enclosure dimensions…… This comfortably sets the minimum Front width of the speaker to mm. Half of 72cm is 36cm — should be easy enough? Like this: Like Loading Author: bleughbleugh Early Fourties, Wife, two kids in primary school. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.

Email required Address never made public. Name required. Post to Cancel. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: Cookie Policy.The appellation 'wave guide' now seems to be attached to any thing that used to be called a horn, and also things that can also legitimately be called waveguides. As the quote from Geddes states, strictly speaking, all horns are not waveguides and this is basically because they do not constitute appropriate guides for the wave fronts that we are attempting to propagate in them, this leading to 'multimodal' propagation.

Most modelling programs like Horncalc use the plane wave assumption. As the name suggests this assumes that the wave front in the horn is flat over a given equal pressure or velocity surface, this model is however only relevant up to a few hundred Hz.

It rapidly becomes very inaccurate at higher frequencies, rendering modelling programs of little use for modelling mid and high frequency horns. In the context of waveguides this means that only a parallel sided duct is in fact a true 'waveguide' for a plane wave, and that a flaring duct in order to be called a waveguide has to propagate parallel curved wavefronts. All of this might seem a bit academic but in fact it is very relevant to sound quality, the reason for this is most likely the aforementioned multimodal propagation.

This research stems from the fact that for high quality sound reproduction, most people prefer direct radiators, and the horns to which people object have a common set of characteristics. Comments such as 'honky', and 'nasal' are common. These are Horns that do not have these characteristics cannot be reliably identified as horns in double blind testing, sounding more like direct radiators.

We might well ask why? One significantly different characteristic of a direct radiator is just that, it radiates directly to the air.

Waveguide (acoustics)

Inside ducts however, the sound can move multimodaly, and is dispersive, i. In theory the correct duct shape can propagate particular wave front shapes with no dispersion just like they propagate in free air, and this feature is the most likely reason that such ducts are free of 'horn sound'. This type of horn has the reputation of not having the characteristic horn sound, the reason for this is most probably because it takes into account the gradual increase in curvature as the wave front propagates down the horn, and the incidence of multimodal propagation is much less than that which occurs in a exponential type of horn, meaning that the tractrix horn is very nearly a true waveguide.

The purpose of this article is to discuss how horns that have both non-hornlike sound i. The most relevant feature being that they have both flat frequency and power response. They also have limitations that have great relevance in high power applications, but such limitations do not normally apply for a domestic installation.

The above are data measured on axis red and at 45 degrees off axis green of a speaker system using a dome tweeter and 6. As can be seen the on axis plot is practically flat, at 45 degrees however the woofer's dispersion causes a gradual loss of output that is restored thereafter by the wide tweeter dispersion, causing a large dip "suck out".

The off axis frequency response is not flat, consequently neither is the system power response. The area increase of this type of waveguide is parabolic, just like a conical horn, the difference is that its throat always coincides with the 'y' axis, and thus has zero flare at the throat, the flare then increasing as to enable the wave front to be bent with the minimum of diffraction.

The theory behind the waveguides to be described is that a dome driver produces what is fair approximation of a spherical wave over its piston range, so if we put one of these in the end of a conical horn, the wave will propagate down the horn in much the same way as it would from a theoretical monopole point source, i. The second is that a mouth meeting the baffle at an abrupt angle is subject to diffraction at high frequencies. Figure 2 - Keele's Asymptotic Model.

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The aperture diffraction effect occurs at the other end of the spectrum, i. If we make this mouth flare a circular radius that blends the conical section to the baffle with no discontinuities, this type of mouth flaring is useful in decreasing the diffraction at upper frequencies.

These wave-guides consist of a conical inner section and a flared mouth section.Waveguide primer main waveguide page. Waveguide construction.

Waveguide dimensions and letter bands. This page contains some of important equations for rectangular waveguide. Here is an index to the subject of waveguide mathematics:. Group delay in waveguide. Note that in the equations on this page we have kept the units simple and consistent, and you might want to do the same For distance, use cm. For frequency, use GHz.

Waveguide can support many modes of transmission. All microwave textbooks will tell you about this, but we don't really care. The usual mode of transmission in rectangular waveguide is called TE Thanks for the correction, Jean-Jacques! The upper cutoff wavelength lower cutoff frequency for this mode is very simply:. The upper cutoff frequency is exactly one octave above the lower. We'll let you do the math on this multiply lower cutoff frequency by two Thus for WR, the cutoff is 6.

Remember, at the lower cutoff the guide simply stops working. See our page on waveguide loss for more information. Guide wavelength is defined as the distance between two equal phase planes along the waveguide. The guide wavelength is a function of operating wavelength or frequency and the lower cutoff wavelength, and is always longer than the wavelength would be in free-space.

Here's the equation for guide wavelength:. Guide wavelength is used when you design distributed structures in waveguide. The guide wavelength in waveguide is longer than wavelength in free space. This isn't intuitive, it seems like the dielectric constant in waveguide must be less than unity for this to happen Here is a way to imagine why this is The waves are coming in at an angle to the beach New for December !

We now have a video of waves breaking sideways that illustrates phase velocity. Hopefully soon we will figure out how to embed it on this page for your enjoyment and education, stay tuned!

Speaker Design…Waveguide, lets start from scratch……

Thanks to Michael! Phase velocity is an almost useless piece of information you'll find in waveguide mathematics; here you multiply frequency times guide wavelength, and come up with a number that exceeds the speed of light! Be assured that the energy in your wave is not exceeding the speed of light, because it travels at what is called the group velocity of the waveguide:.

The group velocity is always less than the speed of light, we like to think of that this is because the EM wave is ping-ponging back and forth as it travels down the guide. Group velocity in a waveguide is speed at which EM energy travels in the guide.

Plotted below as a percentage of the speed of light cwe see how group velocity varies across the band for WR X-band waveguide.

waveguide speaker

Note that the recommended operating band of WR is from 8. At the lower cutoff 6.I have a box of Monacor waveguides cut to various depths for a quick test on tweeters to pick those suitable for applying a waveguide.

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Just throwing in a waveguide on a tweeter mostly doesn't work. Some tweeters may require a shallow waveguide, some tweeters a deep one. The initial part of the waveguide, the throat, is critical in the way the tweeter couples to the air and loads the "horn".

There's no clear distinction between a horn and a waveguide but if a waveguide is deeper than mm, I would start thinking of it as a horn. With the TW tweeter a very shallow waveguide was possible and counts for its lack of any "horny" sound. The shape of the dome loading a long tube may cause phase irregularities and count for aggressive treble performance, thus compression drivers are often fitted with phase plugs meant to load the horn properly.

A horn provides an acoustic impedance match between the driver and free air and improves the efficiency with which an e. As seen from the measurements below we have some 6 dB increase in response around target point of crossover, thus when equalised properly, we have a significant reduction is distortion. Initially I picked a shallow waveguide taking advantage of the faceplate's initial rounding towards the dome.

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This turned out really bad and produced a serious dip around kHz. Thus, a deeper waveguide was tried and produced the results seen below.

Really nice! You could use the faceplate on the tweeter, but I don't think you can buy one from ScanSpeak. In that case you will have to modify the faceplate to fit the Monacor waveguide. I have no measures for this and no plans for doing so.

waveguide speaker

Before you rush to buy a pair of tweeters and waveguides, think about implementation with your other chosen drivers. Making a crossover for a waveguided tweeter is much more difficult than a properly placed tweeter on a flat baffle or properly faceted baffle. The latter may produce a nice flat response easing crossover design.

For the tweeter here the response at 3 kHz is some 6 dB higher compared to 1 and 10 kHz, thus good measurement data and simulation software is necessary to get it right. Quite often it means we can use a much smaller series capacitor, not unimportant when we apply for super caps. Another possible feature is that the acoustic depth of the tweeter is increased the same as the height of the waveguide, e.

Here I used 5 mm MDF. Outer and inner diameters are and 50 mm. Either saw off the threads or make four 9 mm holes to allow the flange to rest on then ribs. Fill cavity with filler, e. Smooth filler and press flange towards the ribs. Apply filler round the throat and smooth with finger as seen on photo. Make a gasket from acrylic felt or similar fabric and mount the driver.

Use washers not to damage the rubber gasket of the tweeter. I used 4 mm wood screws.For example, Bose uses Waveguide technology in many of its sound systems in order to fill a room with audio with a wide range of frequencies from a relatively small speaker. Waveguide speakers handle audio differently than most other speakers. By guiding sound waves rather than generating and sending them out to the world more directly, designers are able to maximize the efficiency of their design an make a speaker sound louder and more powerful than it otherwise would.

If you think of a sound wave as a sphere that grows as the sound travels from its source to various other points in the room, the sound itself loses power in all directions as it travels.

waveguide speaker

Using Waveguide technology, a speaker can generate a wider range of tones by maximizing the efficiency of the speaker. As sound travels through the waveguide, it builds and amplifies the volume of the signal.

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This is similar to how an old phonograph player worked. A large funnel allowed sound to travel from a relatively tiny source into a larger room, making it sound louder and more vibrant. They utilize different principles to deliver sound to the listener, and this technology has its pros and cons.

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Like any audio technology, the value of it lies in the ears of the listener, and everyone has their own preference. What is your favorite type of speaker? Do you have a Waveguide system at home, or do you prefer more standard methods of filling a room with sound?

Search for: Search.Speaker Works is a full service in-car- entertainment facility. Below is a selection of the brands you'll find at Speaker Works.

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And we've been refining the concept for more than fifteen years. Midbass is critical to accurate staging. USD Audio offers two series of midwoofers to provide those critical midbass frequencies and create an accurate stage. The interior of a car is far from an ideal environment for the reproduction of sound. USD Audio offers equalizers and crossovers to provide the maximum amount of flexibility and control in overcoming the limitations of the car audio environment.

A-periodic enclosures offer better transient repsonse, a dramatically lower system Q and smaller enclosure size than any other enclosure type. However, the difficulty of constructing AP enclosures has kept them from all but an experienced few. USD Audio kickpanels are constructed of fiberglass and made for a number of vehicles as well as universal kits. USD Audio Products.

Midwoofers Midbass is critical to accurate staging. Sound Processors The interior of a car is far from an ideal environment for the reproduction of sound. AP Mats A-periodic enclosures offer better transient repsonse, a dramatically lower system Q and smaller enclosure size than any other enclosure type. Kickpanels USD Audio kickpanels are constructed of fiberglass and made for a number of vehicles as well as universal kits.

Speaker Works Products.The article here is not meant to be an exhaustive study on waveguides for ScanSpeak tweeters, rather some practical guidelines for using the waveguide developed for Audax TW as it needs an adaptor and modification to fit the ScanSpeak tweeters as can be seen from drawings and images below. If you want to learn more about waveguides, there's an excellent article here. Generally waveguides allow better coupling of tweeter diaphragm to the surrounding air and they reduce the impact of baffle edge diffraction.

When properly constructed they may enhance dispersion in upper registers and reduce overall distortion. The ScanSpeak drivers seen below features the same plastic mold holding the diaphragm, thus can all be used with same waveguide when removing the faceplate. The trouble zone is the kHz range, where we may experience a rather ragged response from some of the tweeters. Generally high-frequency is trouble! Wavelengths are short and all sorts of things can happen to the frequency response profiles when adding different faceplates or waveguides.

Based on measurements the ring-radiator looks well suited for this application, but despite a somewhat uneven response from the other tweeters, I wouldn't exclude any for waveguide application.


Producing domes having a consistent response in the upper octave is not easy. Coating is critical and I have experienced domes having different dispersion characteristics due to coatings or damping rings being unevenly applied to the thin fabric dome. Soft domes do not operate pistonically, thus various parts of the dome will load the waveguide differently and not even the beryllium dome can be considered operating pistonically as it features a wide suspension made from fabric and I'm sure part of the fabric surround is adding to the radiating area as well as the dome itself.

I haven't yet tried inverted domes Accuton with waveguides but will in the future - if I can remove the grille without damaging the tweeter.

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More details and better transparency - and it can be used without changes to the crossover, which is quite a coincidence. There will not be a commercially available one-piece waveguide for these ScanSpeak tweeters. If you want to explore what a waveguide does you have to make it yourself. Sorry, but I would never sell pieces of a specialty product like this minimum order. Maybe it's my several years with this dome that has become my reference standard. The TW makes a more coherent soundstage with the midbass, where it seems that whenever we optimise on certain parametres it's at the expense of others.

At the end of the day: A matter of taste. Tweeters without face plates: From left:, Making the waveguide adaptor the the TW waveguide. This adaptor could ideally be made on a lathe and from plastic or aluminum, but it can also be made from a piece of HDF. Yes, high-density fiberboard. MDF is too soft and doesn't work. Thanks to Jesper who offered me a slant of HDF from some kitchen interior, hence the yellow colour.

This piece of HDF is 15 mm thick and we really only need 10 mm but I didn't want to buy a whole board for two small ring adaptors. I used a nail air gun as can be seen below. It's important to fasten the routing center block rock-solid, hence a couple of nails close to the center hole. Left: Start by routing two holes of Use an 8 mm router bit.

Right: Due to the 15 mm HDF I started routing to a depth of 5 mm and to a diameter of some 80 mm a little more than the final diameter of the adaptor. Next I used a V-groove router bit to make the conical shaped ring fitting into the tweeter diaphragm mounting plate. Remove residual material around ring to make a final panel thickness of 7 mm check drawing above. Now we need to chamfer the hole from the other side to fit the modified waveguide.

waveguide speaker

Use a rounding over bit I think the name is with a radius of 12 mm and lower it slowly to make an outer diameter of 43 mm.

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